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    SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE PROJECTS

    1-  Egyptian Public Authority for Drainage Projects (EPADP) Strategy for Drainage Projects

    1-  EPADP Strategy for Surface drainage

    EPADP started to improve the surface drains to promote the subsurface drainage performance in agricultural lands by means of remodeling the existing open drains - or even constructing new open drains - or excavation and structures of these channels.

    The total target area of surface drainage is 8.00 million feddans. 5.400 million feddans are located in the Nile Delta and 2.400 million feddans in Upper Egypt . The total area encompassing 7991.8 thousand faddans was completed with a total cost 2175 million L.E. on 30/6/2007 . Now EPADP undertake the responsibility of providing the old lands and the new lands with surface drains .

    2-  EPADP Strategy for Subsurface drainage

    The main activity in implementing subsurface drainage is the installation of covered field collectors of cement or P.V.C corrugated pipes and buried lateral drains of P.V.C corrugated pipes with envelope where necessary and associated structures. The depth of laterals design is to be 1.2 m at the upper end of the lateral and 1.5 m at its connection with the collector drain.

    The total target area to be provided with subsurface drainage is 6.4 million feddans. Nearly 4.6 million feddans of this area are in the Nile Delta while the rest 1.8 million feddans are in Upper Egypt . The total executed area until 30/6/2007 is 5669 million feddans with a total cost of 3238 million L.E. in the Nile Delta and the rest in Upper Egypt . EPADP prepared a proposal extending to year 2025 to cover three stages including the improvements of planning, design, and drainage technology and research.

    3-  EPADP Strategy for Drainage Rehabilitation

    The rehabilitation program started within the first 5-year plan. The total rehabilitated area is 1151.6 thousand feddans up till 30/6/2007 with a total cost of 1055.4 million L.E.

    The expected annual rehabilitation area during the period (2007- 2012) is 110 thousand feddans with a total cost of 220 million L.E. per year increased to be 275 million L.E. per year during the period (2012-2017) with an annual implementation equal to 150 thousand feddans.

    To reach these objectives, EPADP suggests improving most of the drainage parameters and components including planning and design, drainage technology, operation and legal aspects, environmental and social aspects.

    Rehabilitation priority

    Monitoring & Evaluation project (1995 - 2000) determined some notes about the plans of rehabilitation :

    1 - Age of the network is not the only criteria for rehabilitation

    2 - Physical Measurements are the important indicators to identify Drainage

    conditions

    3 - Complaints frequency & high maintenance cost must be taken into

    consideration

    Table (1) Rehabilitation priorities

    Signal or Indicator

    Score: 0

    Score : 1

    Score : 2

    Score : 3

    Status No Problems Many, minor Problems Many, minor Problems Many, minor Problems

    Relative area with problems

    < 10 %

    10 % - 30 %

    >30 %

    > 30%

    1.  Hydraulic performance
           

    1.1 Open drains

    1.2 Manholes

    1.3 Laterals/Collectors

    WL >2.5 m - GL

    WL > 1.8 m - GL

    Flowing

    WL 2.5 - 1.8 m

    WL 1.4 -1.8 m

    Flowing

    WL 1.8 - 1.4 m

    WL 1.4 - 1.0 m

    poor/no flow

    WL < 1.4 m -GL

    WL <1.0 m -GL

    No flow

    2. Complaints
           

     

    2.1 Intensity

    2.2 Problem solving

     

    None

    Not Significant

     

    Low

    Done by farmers

     

    Medium

    Done by Drainage

    Centres

     

    High

    Problems persist

    3. Maintenance & Repair        

    3.1 Intensity

    3.2 Costs in LE/fed/yr

    < 1 x year

    < LE 10

    1 - 2 x year

    LE 10. - LE 20

    3 - 4 x year

    LE 20 - LE 40

    > 4 x year

    > LE 40

     

    2Maintenance and Monitoring

    The intensity and frequency of required maintenance constitute an indicator of the condition of the drainage system. Maintenance needs are derived from observations and reports regarding system performance failures. Systematic inspection of the system functioning and the monitoring of complaints on performance failures will help EPADP to adjust annual work plans for maintenance activities and to undertake emergency remedial actions more effectively.

    Maintenance monitoring is done at the levels of:

    •  Drainage Directorate-General :

    - Main and secondary open drains

    - Weed control

    - Desilting

    - Maintenance and repairs of structures

    •  Drainage Centers :

    - Minor open drains, weed control

    - Partial renewal of collector systems

    •  Drainage Sub-Centers :

    - Cleaning and repairs of collector systems

    This activity is partially done by EPAP staff and private and public contractors.

     

    3-Monitoring and Evaluation of Drainage Projects

    •  Drainage projects are considered one of the most important means of vertical expansion, due to their quick results in improving agricultural yield revenues with percentages that could reach up to 25%. Moreover, drainage projects are one of the main tools for improving soils, keeping their fertility and preventing any deterioration in their characteristics. Therefore, they relate to the national projects that contribute to increasing the national income, raising the farmers' standards of living and narrowing the gap between the production and the increased demand resultant from a growing population.

    •  Within the framework of the ministry's policy and the state's plan, The Egyptian Public Authority for Drainage Projects in The Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation, implements all the drainage projects in the agricultural lands.

    •  Researches and studies have proven that the country has benefited a lot from the implementation of drainage systems especially after the erection of the High Dam and the introduction of the perennial irrigation system.

    •  These benefits are reflected in the increase of agricultural yield and economic revenues that range - according to the World Bank's estimates - from 17-25% in North Egypt and 12-16% in Upper Egypt . This is due to the positive effect of these projects on natural and chemical properties of the soil. For that reason, many international organizations and donors were encouraged to finance the implementation of these projects.

    •  EPADP does its best to cover all the agricultural lands in Egypt with surface and sub-surface drainage.

    •  Since its establishment in 1973, EPADP worked out a nation-wide policy for agricultural drainage based on implementing tile drainage networks in a net area of 6.4 million fed. (4.6 million fed. in North Egypt and 1.8 million fed in Upper Egypt ) to establish a drain of at least 1.25 m deep at the laterals beginnings. Also, to make all the necessary works such as establishing, enlarging and deepening the open drains, and to make the infrastructure works required, such as the pump stations and the siphons to provide a water table depth of 2.5 m in the open drains to create an adequate outfall of collectors and to prevent the return of drainage water into the lateral drains.

    •  To reach these goals, EPADP is planning, designing, implementing and maintaining these projects by using the modern technical methods. In addition, the organization can rely on the support of all its directorates, centers, and sub-centers that spread all over the country, whether in the Head Quarter or in the five Central Departments (three in North Egypt and two in Upper Egypt).

    •  EPADP does not only implement new projects, but also undertakes projects of rehabilitation of old drainage networks, which are no longer functional after 25-30 years. These networks became inefficient and maintenance is becoming too expensive. EPADP is working on making standards to determine the need for rehabilitation. EPADP aims to make annual rehabilitation for an area about 75,000 feddans.

    •  To study and to know how far drainage has contributed to the increase of crop yields, a periodical evaluation has to be done. This should be applied on areas provided with surface and sub-surface drainage. The evaluation is done by the Monitoring and Evaluation Unit in the Directorate General of Planning, Follow up and Monitoring in EPADP.

    •  Evaluation has been done since EPADP started implementing the nation-wide tile drainage networks in the agricultural lands. The Directorate General of Evaluation was doing this work through comparing the agricultural productivity increase of the main crops (wheat, cotton, maize and rice) before and after the implementation of drainage.

    4-  Effect of Drainage System on Agricultural Land.

    To determine the effect of drainage on agriculture land, EPADP chooses some indicators which give vision about the performance of the drainage system, these indicators are:

    1- Ground Water Depths :

    The Figure below represents the ground water depths with the number of days after irrigation that show the following:

    Ground Water Depths

     

    - Before the implementation of the drainage network, most of the curve lies above the designed curve which indicates a problem in the ground water depths before implementing the drainage network.

    - After implementation of drainage network a gradual improvement was noticed in the ground water depths till most of the curve became under the designed curve.

    - That means groundwater depth reduce after implementation the drainage system.

    Water Table Depths 5 Days After Irrigation Before & After Exe.

     

    2-  Ground Water Salinity :

    The Chart below represent that before the implementation of the drainage network, the ground water salinity is more than 4 mm/cm in 50% of the total area but after the implementation of the drainage system this percentage gradually decreased to be 12 % of the total area.

      Water Salinity more than 4 mS/cm Before & After Exe.

    3-  Soil Salinity:

    The Chart below, represent the results of soil samples analysis in the lab, before the implementation of the drainage network and after the implementation.

    Soil Salinity more than 4 mS/cm Before & After Exe.

    4-  The Finance of EPADP Projects

    The drainage projects in Egypt need much investment. To achieve its plans, EPADP has agreements with several foreign donors to finance the drainage projects such as World Bank, African Bank, Islamic Bank and KFW as is shown in table (2).

     

    The budget of EPADP

    The disbursement of funds on both local and foreign contributions to the project's implementation during the last five years and current year are presented in the following figure.

    The budget of EPADP

     

    Table (2) The Finance of EPADP Projects

    NO Agreement

    Total area in 1000 fed.

    Surface

    Drainage

    Subsurface+ Reh Drainage

    Loan or grant

    (million US $)

     

    Completed financing agreements

    1

    Nile Delta I (WB)

    950

    950

    24.2

    2

    Upper Egypt I (WB)

    300

    300

    35

    3

    Dutch Project Grant

     

    44

    22

    4

    Nile Delta II (WB)

    815

    400

    88

    5

    Upper Egypt II (WB)

    500

    463

    65

    6

    Nile Delta V (WB)

    140

    465

    83

    7

    Upper Egypt II (ADF)

    116

    86

    39

    8

    Canadian Project Gran t

    84

    78

    20

    8

    Islamic Bank

    0

    75

    11

    9

    National Drainage Project I IDA,W.B,KFW,NL

    510

    640

    160

    10

    Rehabilitation Project ADF

     

     

    26

    11

    Islamic Bank II

     

    84

    11.7

    12

    Dutch Project Gran t

     

     

    0.8

    13

    Netherlands Government Gran t

     

     

    3.9

     

    Current financing agreements

     

     

     

    1

    National Drainage Project I EIB,W.B,KFW

    365

    800

    165

    2

    Naga Hammadi KFW

    10

    35

    8

    3

    Dutch Project Gran t

     

     

    2.8

     

    IDA = International Development Agency              KFW = German Bank for Reconstruction

    ADB = African Development Bank                         ISB = Islamic Bank

    NL = Netherlands Government

    IBRD = International Bank for Reconstruction        ADF = African Development Fund